Wednesday, December 12, 2018

Fedora 29 : Using pytorch on Fedora distro.

The goal of this tutorial is about how to install and start using the pytorch python module.
Another part is to show tensors without using matplotlib python module.
The reason I wrote this simple tutorial and not on my python blogger is Fedora distro.
The python module named pytorch is based on Torch, used for applications such as natural language processing.
The installation of pytorch into many operating systems can be tricky.
Let's start this tutorial using GitHub clone commands:
[mythcat@desk ~]$  git clone --recursive https://github.com/pytorch/pytorch
...
running install_scripts
Installing convert-caffe2-to-onnx script to /home/mythcat/.local/bin
Installing convert-onnx-to-caffe2 script to /home/mythcat/.local/bin
Using this commands un Fedora linux shell will install easy this python module:
[mythcat@desk ~]$  cd pytorch/
[mythcat@desk ~]$ pip install typing
[mythcat@desk ~]$ python setup.py install --user
[mythcat@desk ~]$ pip install torchvision --user
Collecting torchvision
...
You cannot use the pytorch into pytorch folder.
[mythcat@desk pytorch]$ cd ..
[mythcat@desk ~]$ python -c "import torch; print(torch.__version__)"
1.0.0a0+bf1d411
The result of this output is not an common error. You can fix if you set the paths for pytorch installation. Let's test the pytorch installation:
[mythcat@desk ~]$ python
Python 2.7.15 (default, Oct 15 2018, 15:26:09) 
[GCC 8.2.1 20180801 (Red Hat 8.2.1-2)] on linux2
Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
>>> import torch 
>>> import torchvision
>>> import torchvision.dataset as datasets
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "", line 1, in 
ImportError: No module named dataset
>>> import torchvision.datasets as datasets
>>> print(dir(torch))
['Argument', 'ArgumentSpec', 'Block', 'BoolType', 'ByteStorage', 'ByteTensor', 'CharStorage', 'CharTensor', 'Code', 
'CompleteArgumentSpec', 'DoubleStorage', 'DoubleTensor', 'DynamicType', 'ExecutionPlanState', 'FatalError', 'FloatStorage',
 'FloatTensor', 'FloatType', 'FunctionSchema', 'Future', 'Generator', 'Gradient', 'Graph', 'GraphExecutor', 
'GraphExecutorState', 'HalfStorage', 'HalfStorageBase', 'HalfTensor', 'IODescriptor', 'IntStorage', 'IntTensor', 'IntType',
 'JITException', 'ListType',
...
>>> print(dir(datasets))
['CIFAR10', 'CIFAR100', 'CocoCaptions', 'CocoDetection', 'DatasetFolder', 'EMNIST', 'FakeData', 'FashionMNIST', 
'ImageFolder', 'LSUN', 'LSUNClass', 'MNIST', 'Omniglot', 'PhotoTour', 'SEMEION', 'STL10', 'SVHN', '__all__', 
'__builtins__', '__doc__', '__file__', '__name__', '__package__', '__path__', 'cifar', 'coco', 'fakedata', 
'folder', 'lsun', 'mnist', 'omniglot', 'phototour', 'semeion', 'stl10', 'svhn', 'utils']
>>> x = torch.rand(76)
>>> x.size()
>>> print(x)
tensor([0.9839, 0.5844, 0.4347, 0.5883, 0.1383, 0.7701, 0.1879, 0.5604, 0.4486,
        0.6782, 0.5038, 0.1078, 0.1244, 0.0996, 0.0230, 0.5457, 0.8903, 0.7732,
        0.9948, 0.3201, 0.3149, 0.7180, 0.8811, 0.4468, 0.8169, 0.2998, 0.3900,
        0.8067, 0.0090, 0.6006, 0.8385, 0.8786, 0.3652, 0.5630, 0.1407, 0.7747,
        0.5734, 0.4998, 0.4056, 0.7473, 0.2797, 0.8852, 0.3563, 0.9421, 0.1136,
        0.7676, 0.4224, 0.4350, 0.4968, 0.4457, 0.3047, 0.6792, 0.1026, 0.3593,
        0.4147, 0.6517, 0.5916, 0.3567, 0.8584, 0.9421, 0.2091, 0.6339, 0.5428,
        0.3811, 0.9310, 0.8856, 0.0770, 0.7920, 0.4860, 0.4276, 0.4780, 0.8627,
        0.7287, 0.4340, 0.2859, 0.2213])
>>> from PIL import Image
>>> logo = np.array(Image.open('logo.png').resize((512,512)))
>>> logo_tensor = torch.from_numpy(logo)
>>> logo_tensor.size()
(512, 512, 4)
>>> img = Image.fromarray(logo)
>>> img.show()

Sunday, December 9, 2018

Fedora 29 : Python 3 and Jupyter notebook.

Today I tested the Jupyter Notebook with Fedora 29.
About the Jupyter Notebook the official website comes with this intro:
The Jupyter Notebook is an open-source web application that allows you to create and share documents that contain live code, equations, visualizations and narrative text. Uses include: data cleaning and transformation, numerical simulation, statistical modeling, data visualization, machine learning, and much more.
First I check with DNF tool the update and the upgrade of the Fedora 29 distro.
The next step was to install this:
# dnf install python3-pip
# dnf install python3-devel.x86_64
# pip3 install --upgrade pip
With my account shell I used this commands to create and run the Jupiter Notebook:
$ pip3 install --user virtualenv
$ mkdir my_project
$ cd my_project/
$ virtualenv my_project_env
$ source my_project_env/bin/activate
$ pip3 install jupiter
$ jupiter notebook
The last command will start your default browser and will see this:
You can see I created a new notebook with Python 3.
The result is shown into another tab webpage browser where I used few commands to install new module scipy and I check if this working well:
!pip3 install scipy
help
quickref
The result of this notebook looks like this image:

Thursday, December 6, 2018

Fedora 29 : Shotcut video editor.

Today I tested the new software video editor for Fedora 29.
This video editor is named Shotcut and come with a new released 18.11.18 available here.
This Linux tool come for many operating systems and is a good video editor
I download and unarchive this software from the official website.
The first error comes from libnsl packages but finally, all worked well.
[mythcat@desk Shotcut]$ cd Shotcut.app/
[mythcat@desk Shotcut.app]$ ll
total 80
drwxr-xr-x.  2 mythcat mythcat    89 Nov 19 01:08 bin
-rwxr-xr-x.  1 mythcat mythcat 35147 Nov 18 23:53 COPYING
-rwxr-xr-x.  1 mythcat mythcat   779 Nov 19 01:10 ffmpeg
-rwxr-xr-x.  1 mythcat mythcat   779 Nov 19 01:10 ffplay
-rwxr-xr-x.  1 mythcat mythcat   782 Nov 19 01:10 ffprobe
drwxr-xr-x.  8 mythcat mythcat  8192 Nov 19 01:10 lib
-rwxr-xr-x.  1 mythcat mythcat   773 Nov 19 01:10 melt
-rwxr-xr-x.  1 mythcat mythcat   776 Nov 19 01:10 qmelt
drwxr-xr-x. 13 mythcat mythcat   163 Nov 19 01:10 share
-rwxr-xr-x.  1 mythcat mythcat   759 Nov 19 01:10 shotcut
-rwxr-xr-x.  1 mythcat mythcat   899 Nov 19 01:10 source-me
-rw-r--r--.  1 mythcat mythcat   802 Nov 19 01:10 versions
[mythcat@desk Shotcut.app]$ ./shotcut 
bin/shotcut: error while loading shared libraries: libnsl.so.1: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory
...
[root@desk Shotcut.app]# dnf install libnsl
Last metadata expiration check: 0:23:04 ago on Thu 06 Dec 2018 12:31:08 PM EET.
...
Installed:
  libnsl-2.28-23.fc29.x86_64                                                    

Complete!
The result can be see into the next screenshot:

Monday, December 3, 2018

The saga of build Librelancer over Mono, NuGET and Cake.

I wrote this article because it is a good way to understand beyond the errors encountered for Mono, NuGet and Cake.
I started the day with Fedora 29 installing the old Librelancer game:
Librelancer is a cross-platform, open source game engine re-implementing the 2003 space trading and combat game Freelancer. The engine comes with an editor for several of the game's file formats called LancerEdit.
See the official webpage.
Some errors are temporarily fixed, see:
TERM=xterm.
This error refers an issue open on Feb 13,2018,12:52 PM GMT+2, see here.
However, this is a great way to go through Fedora installations to avoid searching for GitHub issues and issues.
The default install of Cake with the version 0.30.0 will not solve the last error:
[root@desk Librelancer]# nuget  install Cake -Version 0.30.0 
Installing 'Cake 0.30.0'.
Successfully installed 'Cake 0.30.0'. 
Let's hope that problems will solve with time.
Below are the correct steps for going through the installation until the last error.
[mythcat@desk ~]$ git clone --depth=50 --branch=master https://github.com/Librelancer/Librelancer.git 
Cloning into 'Librelancer'...
remote: Enumerating objects: 3085, done.
remote: Counting objects: 100% (3085/3085), done.
remote: Compressing objects: 100% (1414/1414), done.
remote: Total 3085 (delta 2131), reused 2295 (delta 1639), pack-reused 0
Receiving objects: 100% (3085/3085), 7.97 MiB | 2.79 MiB/s, done.
Resolving deltas: 100% (2131/2131), done.
Checking out files: 100% (863/863), done.
[mythcat@desk ~]$ cd Librelancer/
[mythcat@desk Librelancer]$ ll
total 48
-rw-rw-r--.  1 mythcat mythcat 4912 Dec  3 11:23 build.cake
-rw-rw-r--.  1 mythcat mythcat 7439 Dec  3 11:23 build.ps1
-rwxrwxr-x.  1 mythcat mythcat 3210 Dec  3 11:23 build.sh
-rw-rw-r--.  1 mythcat mythcat   33 Dec  3 11:23 cake.config
-rw-rw-r--.  1 mythcat mythcat 1029 Dec  3 11:23 CMakeLists.txt
-rw-rw-r--.  1 mythcat mythcat 2768 Dec  3 11:23 Credits.txt
drwxrwxr-x.  4 mythcat mythcat   87 Dec  3 11:23 deps
drwxrwxr-x.  4 mythcat mythcat 4096 Dec  3 11:23 editoricons
drwxrwxr-x. 12 mythcat mythcat  208 Dec  3 11:23 extern
-rw-rw-r--.  1 mythcat mythcat 1166 Dec  3 11:23 LICENSE
-rw-rw-r--.  1 mythcat mythcat 1877 Dec  3 11:23 README.md
drwxrwxr-x.  2 mythcat mythcat   75 Dec  3 11:23 scripts
drwxrwxr-x. 15 mythcat mythcat 4096 Dec  3 11:23 src
drwxrwxr-x.  2 mythcat mythcat   29 Dec  3 11:23 tools

[mythcat@desk Librelancer]$ git submodule update --init --recursive
Submodule 'extern/BulletSharpPInvoke' (https://github.com/AndresTraks/BulletSharpPInvoke) registered for path 
'extern/BulletSharpPInvoke'
Submodule 'extern/Collada141' (https://github.com/Librelancer/Collada141) registered for path 
'extern/Collada141'
Submodule 'extern/FontConfigSharp' (https://github.com/CallumDev/FontConfigSharp.git) registered for path 
'extern/FontConfigSharp'
Submodule 'extern/ImGui.NET' (https://github.com/mellinoe/ImGui.NET) registered for path 'extern/ImGui.NET'
Submodule 'extern/SharpFont' (https://github.com/Robmaister/SharpFont.git) registered for path 'extern/SharpFont'
Submodule 'extern/StbSharp' (https://github.com/rds1983/StbSharp) registered for path 'extern/StbSharp'
Submodule 'extern/bullet3' (https://github.com/bulletphysics/bullet3) registered for path 'extern/bullet3'
Submodule 'extern/cimgui' (https://github.com/Extrawurst/cimgui) registered for path 'extern/cimgui'
Submodule 'extern/lidgren-network-gen3' (https://github.com/lidgren/lidgren-network-gen3) registered for path 
'extern/lidgren-network-gen3'
Submodule 'extern/nvidia-texture-tools' (https://github.com/castano/nvidia-texture-tools) registered for path 
'extern/nvidia-texture-tools'
Cloning into '/home/mythcat/Librelancer/extern/BulletSharpPInvoke'...
Cloning into '/home/mythcat/Librelancer/extern/Collada141'...
Cloning into '/home/mythcat/Librelancer/extern/FontConfigSharp'...
Cloning into '/home/mythcat/Librelancer/extern/ImGui.NET'...
Cloning into '/home/mythcat/Librelancer/extern/SharpFont'...
...
[mythcat@desk Librelancer]$ export GITHUB_TOKEN=[secure]
Check your mono version 
[mythcat@desk Librelancer]$ mono --version
Mono JIT compiler version 4.8.0 (Stable 4.8.0.520/8f6d0f6 Wed Sep 20 21:27:10 UTC 2017)
Copyright (C) 2002-2014 Novell, Inc, Xamarin Inc and Contributors. www.mono-project.com
    TLS:           __thread
    SIGSEGV:       normal
    Notifications: epoll
    Architecture:  amd64
    Disabled:      none
    Misc:          softdebug 
    LLVM:          supported, not enabled.
    GC:            sgen

[root@desk Librelancer]# rpm --import https://packages.microsoft.com/keys/microsoft.asc
[root@desk Librelancer]# wget -q https://packages.microsoft.com/config/fedora/27/prod.repo
[root@desk Librelancer]# ls
build.cake  cake.config     deps         LICENSE    scripts
build.ps1   CMakeLists.txt  editoricons  prod.repo  src
build.sh    Credits.txt     extern       README.md  tools
[root@desk Librelancer]# vim prod.repo 
[root@desk Librelancer]# mv prod.repo /etc/yum.repos.d/microsoft-prod.repo
[root@desk Librelancer]# chown root:root /etc/yum.repos.d/microsoft-prod.repo
[root@desk Librelancer]# dnf update
packages-microsoft-com-prod                      48 kB/s | 156 kB     00:03    
Last metadata expiration check: 0:00:01 ago on Mon 03 Dec 2018 11:52:11 AM EET.
Dependencies resolved.
Nothing to do.
Complete!

[root@desk Librelancer]# dnf search dotnet-sdk
Last metadata expiration check: 0:01:05 ago on Mon 03 Dec 2018 11:52:11 AM EET.
=========================== Name Matched: dotnet-sdk ===========================
dotnet-sdk-2.1.x86_64 : Microsoft .NET Core SDK 2.1.500 2.1.500
dotnet-sdk-2.1.200.x86_64 : Microsoft .NET Core SDK - 2.1.200 2.1.200
dotnet-sdk-2.1.201.x86_64 : Microsoft .NET Core SDK - 2.1.201 2.1.201
dotnet-sdk-2.1.202.x86_64 : Microsoft .NET Core SDK - 2.1.202 2.1.202
dotnet-sdk-2.1.300-rc1-008673.x86_64 : Microsoft .NET Core SDK 2.1.300 - rc1
                                     : 2.1.300-rc1-008673

[root@desk Librelancer]# dnf install dotnet-sdk-2.1.202.x86_64 
Last metadata expiration check: 0:02:18 ago on Mon 03 Dec 2018 11:52:11 AM EET.
Dependencies resolved.
================================================================================
 Package                 Arch    Version     Repository                    Size
================================================================================
Installing:
 dotnet-sdk-2.1.202      x86_64  2.1.202-1   packages-microsoft-com-prod   96 M
Installing dependencies:
 aspnetcore-store-2.0.0  x86_64  2.0.0-1     packages-microsoft-com-prod   24 M
 aspnetcore-store-2.0.3  x86_64  2.0.3-1     packages-microsoft-com-prod  7.9 M
 aspnetcore-store-2.0.5  x86_64  2.0.5-1     packages-microsoft-com-prod  1.6 M
 aspnetcore-store-2.0.6  x86_64  2.0.6-1     packages-microsoft-com-prod  9.3 M
 aspnetcore-store-2.0.7  x86_64  2.0.7-1     packages-microsoft-com-prod   24 k
 aspnetcore-store-2.0.8  x86_64  2.0.8-1     packages-microsoft-com-prod  8.5 M
 aspnetcore-store-2.0.9  x86_64  2.0.9-1     packages-microsoft-com-prod  956 k
 dotnet-host             x86_64  2.1.6-1     packages-microsoft-com-prod   45 k
 dotnet-hostfxr-2.0.9    x86_64  2.0.9-1     packages-microsoft-com-prod  182 k
 dotnet-runtime-2.0.9    x86_64  2.0.9-1     packages-microsoft-com-prod   24 M

Transaction Summary
================================================================================
Install  11 Packages

Total download size: 173 M
Installed size: 173 M
Is this ok [y/N]: y
...
Complete!

This will fix a bug : 
Unhandled Exception:
System.TypeInitializationException: The type initializer for 'System.Console' threw an exception.
[mythcat@desk Librelancer]$ TERM=xterm


[mythcat@desk Librelancer]$ ./build.sh 
Could not load file or assembly 'Microsoft.Build.Utilities.v4.0, Version=4.0.0.0, Culture=neutral, 
PublicKeyToken=b03f5f7f11d50a3a' or one of its dependencies.
Could not load file or assembly 'Microsoft.Build.Utilities.v4.0, Version=4.0.0.0, Culture=neutral, 
PublicKeyToken=b03f5f7f11d50a3a' or one of its dependencies.

[root@desk Librelancer]# dnf install nuget.x86_64 

The dotnet come with this:

[root@desk Librelancer]# dotnet --info
.NET Core SDK (reflecting any global.json):
 Version:   2.1.500
 Commit:    b68b931422

Runtime Environment:
 OS Name:     fedora
 OS Version:  29
 OS Platform: Linux
 RID:         fedora.29-x64
 Base Path:   /usr/share/dotnet/sdk/2.1.500/

Host (useful for support):
  Version: 2.1.6
  Commit:  3f4f8eebd8

.NET Core SDKs installed:
  2.1.202 [/usr/share/dotnet/sdk]
  2.1.500 [/usr/share/dotnet/sdk]

.NET Core runtimes installed:
  Microsoft.AspNetCore.All 2.1.6 [/usr/share/dotnet/shared/Microsoft.AspNetCore.All]
  Microsoft.AspNetCore.App 2.1.6 [/usr/share/dotnet/shared/Microsoft.AspNetCore.App]
  Microsoft.NETCore.App 2.0.9 [/usr/share/dotnet/shared/Microsoft.NETCore.App]
  Microsoft.NETCore.App 2.1.6 [/usr/share/dotnet/shared/Microsoft.NETCore.App]

To install additional .NET Core runtimes or SDKs:
  https://aka.ms/dotnet-download

Let's test again:
[mythcat@desk Librelancer]$ ./build.sh 
Feeds used:
  https://api.nuget.org/v3/index.json

Restoring NuGet package Cake.0.30.0.
WARNING: Unable to find version '0.30.0' of package 'Cake'.
  https://api.nuget.org/v3/index.json: Unable to load the service index for source https://api.nuget.org/v3/index.json.
  An error occurred while sending the request
  Error: TrustFailure (Ssl error:1000007d:SSL routines:OPENSSL_internal:CERTIFICATE_VERIFY_FAILED)
  Ssl error:1000007d:SSL routines:OPENSSL_internal:CERTIFICATE_VERIFY_FAILED

Unable to find version '0.30.0' of package 'Cake'.
  https://api.nuget.org/v3/index.json: Unable to load the service index for source https://api.nuget.org/v3/index.json.
  An error occurred while sending the request
  Error: TrustFailure (Ssl error:1000007d:SSL routines:OPENSSL_internal:CERTIFICATE_VERIFY_FAILED)
  Ssl error:1000007d:SSL routines:OPENSSL_internal:CERTIFICATE_VERIFY_FAILED

Could not restore NuGet tools.

[root@desk Librelancer]# cat /etc/ssl/certs/* >ca-bundle.crt
[root@desk Librelancer]# TERM=xterm
[root@desk Librelancer]# cert-sync ca-bundle.crt
Mono Certificate Store Sync - version 4.8.0.0
Populate Mono certificate store from a concatenated list of certificates.
Copyright 2002, 2003 Motus Technologies. Copyright 2004-2008 Novell. BSD licensed.

Importing into legacy system store:
I already trust 0, your new list has 129
Certificate added: CN=ACCVRAIZ1, OU=PKIACCV, O=ACCV, C=ES
Certificate added: C=ES, O=FNMT-RCM, OU=AC RAIZ FNMT-RCM
Certificate added: C=IT, L=Milan, O=Actalis S.p.A./03358520967, CN=Actalis Authentication Root CA
Certificate added: C=SE, O=AddTrust AB, OU=AddTrust External TTP Network, CN=AddTrust External CA Root
...
129 new root certificates were added to your trust store.
Import process completed.
[root@desk Librelancer]# rm ca-bundle.crt
rm: remove regular file 'ca-bundle.crt'? y

[mythcat@desk Librelancer]$ ./build.sh 
Feeds used:
  https://api.nuget.org/v3/index.json

Restoring NuGet package Cake.0.30.0.
  GET https://api.nuget.org/v3-flatcontainer/cake/0.30.0/cake.0.30.0.nupkg
  OK https://api.nuget.org/v3-flatcontainer/cake/0.30.0/cake.0.30.0.nupkg 53ms
Installing Cake 0.30.0.
Adding package 'Cake.0.30.0' to folder '/home/mythcat/Librelancer/tools'
Added package 'Cake.0.30.0' to folder '/home/mythcat/Librelancer/tools'
Install failed. Rolling back...
Error: One or more errors occurred.
    Could not load type 'NuGet.Packaging.PackageArchiveReader' from assembly 'NuGet.Packaging, 
Version=4.7.0.5, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=31bf3856ad364e35'.

Monday, November 26, 2018

Fedora 29 : Commands and tools that handle assembly files - part 001.

This commands and tools that handle assembly files, object files, and libraries are very useful for development. In order to test this commands and tools, we need an executable file. I used this assembly source code created for FASM assembly. This assembly source code sums a variable named rad with a size of 8 bytes:
[mythcat@desk fasm]$ vim sum.asm 
format elf64
extrn printf

section '.data' writeable align 16
rad dq 90.0
fmt db "%.30lf",0ah,0

section '.text' executable align 16
public main
main:
    push rbp
    mov rbp,rsp
    pxor xmm0,xmm0
    movsd xmm0,[rad]
    movsd xmm2,[rad]
    addsd xmm0,xmm2
    mov rax,1
    mov rdi,fmt
    call printf

    mov rsp,rbp
    pop rbp
    ret
Let's create the output with the fasm tool:
[mythcat@desk fasm]$ ./fasm sum.asm 
flat assembler  version 1.73.04  (16384 kilobytes memory)
1 passes, 784 bytes.
The nm command can list symbols from object file. Let's see:
[mythcat@desk fasm]$ nm -A sum.o
sum.o:0000000000000000 T main
sum.o:                 U printf
Using the gcc tool I created the binary executable file and I run it:
[mythcat@desk fasm]$ gcc -s sum.o -o sum -lm
[mythcat@desk fasm]$ ./sum 
180.000000000000000000000000000000
The readelf can display information from elf file, see the output:
[mythcat@desk fasm]$ readelf -h sum 
ELF Header:
  Magic:   7f 45 4c 46 02 01 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 
  Class:                             ELF64
  Data:                              2's complement, little endian
  Version:                           1 (current)
  OS/ABI:                            UNIX - System V
  ABI Version:                       0
  Type:                              EXEC (Executable file)
  Machine:                           Advanced Micro Devices X86-64
  Version:                           0x1
  Entry point address:               0x401040
  Start of program headers:          64 (bytes into file)
  Start of section headers:          13552 (bytes into file)
  Flags:                             0x0
  Size of this header:               64 (bytes)
  Size of program headers:           56 (bytes)
  Number of program headers:         11
  Size of section headers:           64 (bytes)
  Number of section headers:         28
  Section header string table index: 27
The strings can display printable char sequence from object files:
[mythcat@desk fasm]$ strings sum
/lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2
libm.so.6
__gmon_start__
libc.so.6
printf
__libc_start_main
GLIBC_2.2.5
H=@@@
[]A\A]A^A_
;*3$"
V@%.30lf
GCC: (GNU) 8.2.1 20181105 (Red Hat 8.2.1-5)
gcc 8.2.1 20181105
GA*GOW
GA+stack_clash
GA*cf_protection
GA+GLIBCXX_ASSERTIONS
GA*FORTIFY
GA!stack_realign
gcc 8.2.1 20181105
GA*GOW
GA+stack_clash
GA*cf_protection
GA*FORTIFY
GA+GLIBCXX_ASSERTIONS
GA!stack_realign
.shstrtab
.interp
.note.ABI-tag
.note.gnu.build-id
.gnu.hash
.dynsym
.dynstr
.gnu.version
.gnu.version_r
.rela.dyn
.rela.plt
.init
.text
.fini
.rodata
.eh_frame_hdr
.eh_frame
.init_array
.fini_array
.dynamic
.got
.got.plt
.data
.bss
.comment
.gnu.build.attributes
The most used is the objdump. This will come with many options for many exeecutable binary files:
[mythcat@desk fasm]$ objdump --help
objdump: supported targets: elf64-x86-64 elf32-i386 elf32-iamcu elf32-x86-64 pei-i386 pei-x86-64 elf64-l1om elf64-k1om 
elf64-little elf64-big elf32-little elf32-big pe-x86-64 pe-bigobj-x86-64 pe-i386 plugin srec symbolsrec verilog tekhex 
binary ihex objdump: supported architectures: i386 i386:x86-64 i386:x64-32 i8086 i386:intel i386:x86-64:intel 
i386:x64-32:intel i386:nacl i386:x86-64:nacl i386:x64-32:nacl iamcu iamcu:intel l1om l1om:intel k1om k1om:intel plugin

The following i386/x86-64 specific disassembler options are supported for use
with the -M switch (multiple options should be separated by commas):
  x86-64      Disassemble in 64bit mode
  i386        Disassemble in 32bit mode
  i8086       Disassemble in 16bit mode
  att         Display instruction in AT&T syntax
  intel       Display instruction in Intel syntax
  att-mnemonic
              Display instruction in AT&T mnemonic
  intel-mnemonic
              Display instruction in Intel mnemonic
  addr64      Assume 64bit address size
  addr32      Assume 32bit address size
  addr16      Assume 16bit address size
  data32      Assume 32bit data size
  data16      Assume 16bit data size
  suffix      Always display instruction suffix in AT&T syntax
  amd64       Display instruction in AMD64 ISA
  intel64     Display instruction in Intel64 ISA
Report bugs to .
Let's test some features of the objdump. The arg -t can show the symbol table:
[mythcat@desk fasm]$ objdump -t sum 

sum:     file format elf64-x86-64

SYMBOL TABLE:
no symbols
The arg -d can display selected information from object files by the disassemble file:
[mythcat@desk fasm]$ objdump -d sum

sum:     file format elf64-x86-64

Disassembly of section .init:

0000000000401000 <.init>:
  401000:    f3 0f 1e fa              endbr64 
  401004:    48 83 ec 08              sub    $0x8,%rsp
  401008:    48 8b 05 e9 2f 00 00     mov    0x2fe9(%rip),%rax        # 403ff8 
  40100f:    48 85 c0                 test   %rax,%rax
  401012:    74 02                    je     401016 
  401014:    ff d0                    callq  *%rax
  401016:    48 83 c4 08              add    $0x8,%rsp
  40101a:    c3                       retq   

Disassembly of section .plt:

0000000000401020 :
  401020:    ff 35 e2 2f 00 00        pushq  0x2fe2(%rip)        # 404008 
  401026:    ff 25 e4 2f 00 00        jmpq   *0x2fe4(%rip)        # 404010 
  40102c:    0f 1f 40 00              nopl   0x0(%rax)

0000000000401030 :
  401030:    ff 25 e2 2f 00 00        jmpq   *0x2fe2(%rip)        # 404018 
  401036:    68 00 00 00 00           pushq  $0x0
  40103b:    e9 e0 ff ff ff           jmpq   401020 

Disassembly of section .text:

0000000000401040 <.text>:
  401040:    f3 0f 1e fa              endbr64 
  401044:    31 ed                    xor    %ebp,%ebp
  401046:    49 89 d1                 mov    %rdx,%r9
  401049:    5e                       pop    %rsi
  40104a:    48 89 e2                 mov    %rsp,%rdx
  40104d:    48 83 e4 f0              and    $0xfffffffffffffff0,%rsp
  401051:    50                       push   %rax
  401052:    54                       push   %rsp
  401053:    49 c7 c0 e0 11 40 00     mov    $0x4011e0,%r8
  40105a:    48 c7 c1 70 11 40 00     mov    $0x401170,%rcx
  401061:    48 c7 c7 30 11 40 00     mov    $0x401130,%rdi
  401068:    ff 15 82 2f 00 00        callq  *0x2f82(%rip)        # 403ff0 
  40106e:    f4                       hlt    
  40106f:    90                       nop
  401070:    f3 0f 1e fa              endbr64 
  401074:    c3                       retq   
  401075:    66 2e 0f 1f 84 00 00     nopw   %cs:0x0(%rax,%rax,1)
  40107c:    00 00 00 
  40107f:    90                       nop
  401080:    b8 40 40 40 00           mov    $0x404040,%eax
  401085:    48 3d 40 40 40 00        cmp    $0x404040,%rax
  40108b:    74 13                    je     4010a0 
  40108d:    b8 00 00 00 00           mov    $0x0,%eax
  401092:    48 85 c0                 test   %rax,%rax
  401095:    74 09                    je     4010a0 
  401097:    bf 40 40 40 00           mov    $0x404040,%edi
  40109c:    ff e0                    jmpq   *%rax
  40109e:    66 90                    xchg   %ax,%ax
  4010a0:    c3                       retq   
  4010a1:    66 66 2e 0f 1f 84 00     data16 nopw %cs:0x0(%rax,%rax,1)
  4010a8:    00 00 00 00 
  4010ac:    0f 1f 40 00              nopl   0x0(%rax)
  4010b0:    be 40 40 40 00           mov    $0x404040,%esi
  4010b5:    48 81 ee 40 40 40 00     sub    $0x404040,%rsi
  4010bc:    48 c1 fe 03              sar    $0x3,%rsi
  4010c0:    48 89 f0                 mov    %rsi,%rax
  4010c3:    48 c1 e8 3f              shr    $0x3f,%rax
  4010c7:    48 01 c6                 add    %rax,%rsi
  4010ca:    48 d1 fe                 sar    %rsi
  4010cd:    74 11                    je     4010e0 
  4010cf:    b8 00 00 00 00           mov    $0x0,%eax
  4010d4:    48 85 c0                 test   %rax,%rax
  4010d7:    74 07                    je     4010e0 
  4010d9:    bf 40 40 40 00           mov    $0x404040,%edi
  4010de:    ff e0                    jmpq   *%rax
  4010e0:    c3                       retq   
  4010e1:    66 66 2e 0f 1f 84 00     data16 nopw %cs:0x0(%rax,%rax,1)
  4010e8:    00 00 00 00 
  4010ec:    0f 1f 40 00              nopl   0x0(%rax)
  4010f0:    f3 0f 1e fa              endbr64 
  4010f4:    80 3d 45 2f 00 00 00     cmpb   $0x0,0x2f45(%rip)        # 404040 
  4010fb:    75 13                    jne    401110 
  4010fd:    55                       push   %rbp
  4010fe:    48 89 e5                 mov    %rsp,%rbp
  401101:    e8 7a ff ff ff           callq  401080 
  401106:    c6 05 33 2f 00 00 01     movb   $0x1,0x2f33(%rip)        # 404040 
  40110d:    5d                       pop    %rbp
  40110e:    c3                       retq   
  40110f:    90                       nop
  401110:    c3                       retq   
  401111:    66 66 2e 0f 1f 84 00     data16 nopw %cs:0x0(%rax,%rax,1)
  401118:    00 00 00 00 
  40111c:    0f 1f 40 00              nopl   0x0(%rax)
  401120:    f3 0f 1e fa              endbr64 
  401124:    eb 8a                    jmp    4010b0 
  401126:    66 2e 0f 1f 84 00 00     nopw   %cs:0x0(%rax,%rax,1)
  40112d:    00 00 00 
  401130:    55                       push   %rbp
  401131:    48 89 e5                 mov    %rsp,%rbp
  401134:    66 0f ef c0              pxor   %xmm0,%xmm0
  401138:    f2 0f 10 05 f0 2e 00     movsd  0x2ef0(%rip),%xmm0        # 404030 
  40113f:    00 
  401140:    f2 0f 10 15 e8 2e 00     movsd  0x2ee8(%rip),%xmm2        # 404030 
  401147:    00 
  401148:    f2 0f 58 c2              addsd  %xmm2,%xmm0
  40114c:    48 c7 c0 01 00 00 00     mov    $0x1,%rax
  401153:    48 bf 38 40 40 00 00     movabs $0x404038,%rdi
  40115a:    00 00 00 
  40115d:    e8 ce fe ff ff           callq  401030 
  401162:    48 89 ec                 mov    %rbp,%rsp
  401165:    5d                       pop    %rbp
  401166:    c3                       retq   
  401167:    66 0f 1f 84 00 00 00     nopw   0x0(%rax,%rax,1)
  40116e:    00 00 
  401170:    f3 0f 1e fa              endbr64 
  401174:    41 57                    push   %r15
  401176:    49 89 d7                 mov    %rdx,%r15
  401179:    41 56                    push   %r14
  40117b:    49 89 f6                 mov    %rsi,%r14
  40117e:    41 55                    push   %r13
  401180:    41 89 fd                 mov    %edi,%r13d
  401183:    41 54                    push   %r12
  401185:    4c 8d 25 74 2c 00 00     lea    0x2c74(%rip),%r12        # 403e00 
  40118c:    55                       push   %rbp
  40118d:    48 8d 2d 74 2c 00 00     lea    0x2c74(%rip),%rbp        # 403e08 
  401194:    53                       push   %rbx
  401195:    4c 29 e5                 sub    %r12,%rbp
  401198:    48 83 ec 08              sub    $0x8,%rsp
  40119c:    e8 5f fe ff ff           callq  401000 
  4011a1:    48 c1 fd 03              sar    $0x3,%rbp
  4011a5:    74 1f                    je     4011c6 
  4011a7:    31 db                    xor    %ebx,%ebx
  4011a9:    0f 1f 80 00 00 00 00     nopl   0x0(%rax)
  4011b0:    4c 89 fa                 mov    %r15,%rdx
  4011b3:    4c 89 f6                 mov    %r14,%rsi
  4011b6:    44 89 ef                 mov    %r13d,%edi
  4011b9:    41 ff 14 dc              callq  *(%r12,%rbx,8)
  4011bd:    48 83 c3 01              add    $0x1,%rbx
  4011c1:    48 39 dd                 cmp    %rbx,%rbp
  4011c4:    75 ea                    jne    4011b0 
  4011c6:    48 83 c4 08              add    $0x8,%rsp
  4011ca:    5b                       pop    %rbx
  4011cb:    5d                       pop    %rbp
  4011cc:    41 5c                    pop    %r12
  4011ce:    41 5d                    pop    %r13
  4011d0:    41 5e                    pop    %r14
  4011d2:    41 5f                    pop    %r15
  4011d4:    c3                       retq   
  4011d5:    66 66 2e 0f 1f 84 00     data16 nopw %cs:0x0(%rax,%rax,1)
  4011dc:    00 00 00 00 
  4011e0:    f3 0f 1e fa              endbr64 
  4011e4:    c3                       retq   

Disassembly of section .fini:

00000000004011e8 <.fini>:
  4011e8:    f3 0f 1e fa              endbr64 
  4011ec:    48 83 ec 08              sub    $0x8,%rsp
  4011f0:    48 83 c4 08              add    $0x8,%rsp
  4011f4:    c3                       retq 
The arg -h can show some debug sections from file:
[mythcat@desk fasm]$ objdump -h sum 

sum:     file format elf64-x86-64

Sections:
Idx Name          Size      VMA               LMA               File off  Algn
  0 .interp       0000001c  00000000004002a8  00000000004002a8  000002a8  2**0
                  CONTENTS, ALLOC, LOAD, READONLY, DATA
  1 .note.ABI-tag 00000020  00000000004002c4  00000000004002c4  000002c4  2**2
                  CONTENTS, ALLOC, LOAD, READONLY, DATA
  2 .note.gnu.build-id 00000024  00000000004002e4  00000000004002e4  000002e4  2**2
                  CONTENTS, ALLOC, LOAD, READONLY, DATA
  3 .gnu.hash     0000001c  0000000000400308  0000000000400308  00000308  2**3
                  CONTENTS, ALLOC, LOAD, READONLY, DATA
  4 .dynsym       00000060  0000000000400328  0000000000400328  00000328  2**3
                  CONTENTS, ALLOC, LOAD, READONLY, DATA
  5 .dynstr       00000049  0000000000400388  0000000000400388  00000388  2**0
                  CONTENTS, ALLOC, LOAD, READONLY, DATA
  6 .gnu.version  00000008  00000000004003d2  00000000004003d2  000003d2  2**1
                  CONTENTS, ALLOC, LOAD, READONLY, DATA
  7 .gnu.version_r 00000020  00000000004003e0  00000000004003e0  000003e0  2**3
                  CONTENTS, ALLOC, LOAD, READONLY, DATA
  8 .rela.dyn     00000030  0000000000400400  0000000000400400  00000400  2**3
                  CONTENTS, ALLOC, LOAD, READONLY, DATA
  9 .rela.plt     00000018  0000000000400430  0000000000400430  00000430  2**3
                  CONTENTS, ALLOC, LOAD, READONLY, DATA
 10 .init         0000001b  0000000000401000  0000000000401000  00001000  2**2
                  CONTENTS, ALLOC, LOAD, READONLY, CODE
 11 .plt          00000020  0000000000401020  0000000000401020  00001020  2**4
                  CONTENTS, ALLOC, LOAD, READONLY, CODE
 12 .text         000001a5  0000000000401040  0000000000401040  00001040  2**4
                  CONTENTS, ALLOC, LOAD, READONLY, CODE
 13 .fini         0000000d  00000000004011e8  00000000004011e8  000011e8  2**2
                  CONTENTS, ALLOC, LOAD, READONLY, CODE
 14 .rodata       00000010  0000000000402000  0000000000402000  00002000  2**3
                  CONTENTS, ALLOC, LOAD, READONLY, DATA
 15 .eh_frame_hdr 00000034  0000000000402010  0000000000402010  00002010  2**2
                  CONTENTS, ALLOC, LOAD, READONLY, DATA
 16 .eh_frame     000000c8  0000000000402048  0000000000402048  00002048  2**3
                  CONTENTS, ALLOC, LOAD, READONLY, DATA
 17 .init_array   00000008  0000000000403e00  0000000000403e00  00002e00  2**3
                  CONTENTS, ALLOC, LOAD, DATA
 18 .fini_array   00000008  0000000000403e08  0000000000403e08  00002e08  2**3
                  CONTENTS, ALLOC, LOAD, DATA
 19 .dynamic      000001e0  0000000000403e10  0000000000403e10  00002e10  2**3
                  CONTENTS, ALLOC, LOAD, DATA
 20 .got          00000010  0000000000403ff0  0000000000403ff0  00002ff0  2**3
                  CONTENTS, ALLOC, LOAD, DATA
 21 .got.plt      00000020  0000000000404000  0000000000404000  00003000  2**3
                  CONTENTS, ALLOC, LOAD, DATA
 22 .data         00000020  0000000000404020  0000000000404020  00003020  2**4
                  CONTENTS, ALLOC, LOAD, DATA
 23 .bss          00000008  0000000000404040  0000000000404040  00003040  2**0
                  ALLOC
 24 .comment      0000002c  0000000000000000  0000000000000000  00003040  2**0
                  CONTENTS, READONLY
 25 .gnu.build.attributes 00000558  0000000000406048  0000000000406048  0000306c  2**2
                  CONTENTS, READONLY
This is just a part from all commands and tools that handle assembly files.

Friday, November 16, 2018

Fedora 29 : PyQt5 with Qt5 Designer tool.

The Fedora Linux distro can provide many tools and options for programming.
For example, you can use PyQt5 python module to create applications.
The Qt Designer tool can be used to create ui type file and used it.
Let's see this example.
First, open the tool in Fedora distro:
The tool can be used to create GUI for your application.
The result is one file with the extension ui.
I create one main window and I save the file with the name: untitled.ui.
This file can be used with the PyQt5 python module:
from PyQt5 import QtWidgets, uic
import sys
app = QtWidgets.QApplication([])
# location of .ui type file create with PyQt5 designer 
win = uic.loadUi("untitled.ui")
win.show()
app.exec_()
Run this python source code and you will see the result:

Thursday, November 8, 2018

Fedora 29 : System Storage Manager tool.

This Linux tool comes with this intro:
System Storage Manager provides an easy to use command line interface to manage your storage using various technologies like lvm, btrfs, encrypted volumes and more.
Today I will show an easy way to fix the size of your size of the volume and the file system.
Fist you need to install it with dnf tool :
[root@desk mythcat]# dnf install system-storage-manager
Last metadata expiration check: 1:11:16 ago on Thu 08 Nov 2018 08:04:29 PM EET.
Package system-storage-manager-1.2-1.fc29.noarch is already installed.
Dependencies resolved.
Nothing to do.
Complete!
Use this command to fill up to 100%:
[root@desk mythcat]# ssm resize -s +100%FREE /dev/mapper/fedora-root 
Display the information about all detected devices, pools, volumes, and snapshots, see:
[root@desk mythcat]# ssm list
-------------------------------------------------------------
Device        Free       Used      Total  Pool    Mount point
-------------------------------------------------------------
Check the file system consistency on the volume ( this cannot be use with swap ).
[root@desk mythcat]# ssm check
You can read more about this tool here.